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Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study.

Dos Santos, Elisângela Milhomem; Brito, Dyego José de Araújo; Calado, Isabela Leal; França, Ana Karina Teixeira; Lages, Joyce Santos; Monteiro Junior, Francisco das Chagas; Dos Santos, Alcione Miranda; Salgado Filho, Natalino.
Ren Fail; 40(1): 22-29, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298567
In most countries, salt intake has been excessive and constitutes one of the main risk factors for disease development, especially hypertension. Factors such as age, gender, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, African descent, obesity, dietary habits and family history of hypertension may be associated with high blood pressure. Studies show a positive association between the excretion of sodium and increased blood pressure. We evaluated the urinary excretion of sodium and associated factors in isolated urine samples of African descendants from remaining Quilombos. We performed a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1162 African descendants living in remaining quilombos in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil. Demographic, nutritional, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. Urinary sodium excretion was estimated using the Kawasaki equation. A multivariate linear regression model was used to identify the variables related to sodium excretion. The average age was 37.6 ± 11.8 years and 51.2% were women. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.3%. The average urinary excretion of sodium was high, especially among the hypertensive (217.9 ± 90.1 vs. 199.2 ± 83.0 mmol/d; p = .002). After an adjusted analysis, only the waist circumference (odds ratios (OR) = 1.16; confidence intervals(CI)95%: 1.03-1.30), triglyceride (OR = 1.13; CI95%: 1.05-1.22), systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.19; CI95%: 1.08-1.32) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI;OR = 1.24; CI95%: 1.15-1.35) remained related to urinary sodium excretion. African descendants had a high rate of sodium excretion, especially among those who had hypertension. Abdominal adiposity, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure levels and renal function by CKD-EPI equation were associated to urinary sodium excretion.
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