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Activation mechanism of the G protein-coupled sweet receptor heterodimer with sweeteners and allosteric agonists.

Kim, Soo-Kyung; Chen, Yalu; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A; Guthrie, Brian.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 114(10): 2568-2573, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28228527
The sweet taste in humans is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which belongs to the class C family that also includes the metabotropic glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. We report here the predicted 3D structure of the full-length TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer, including the Venus Flytrap Domains (VFDs) [in the closed-open (co) active conformation], the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), and the transmembrane domains (TMDs) at the TM56/TM56 interface. We observe that binding of agonists to VFD2 of TAS1R2 leads to major conformational changes to form a TM6/TM6 interface between TMDs of TAS1R2 and TAS1R3, which is consistent with the activation process observed biophysically on the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 homodimer. We find that the initial effect of the agonist is to pull the bottom part of VFD3/TAS1R3 toward the bottom part of VFD2/TAS1R2 by ∼6 Šand that these changes get transmitted from VFD2 of TAS1R2 (where agonists bind) through the VFD3 and the CRD3 to the TMD3 of TAS1R3 (which couples to the G protein). These structural transformations provide a detailed atomistic mechanism for the activation process in GPCR, providing insights and structural details that can now be validated through mutation experiments.
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