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Different cell death pathways induced by drugs in Trypanosoma cruzi: an ultrastructural study.

Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Salomão, Kelly; Dantas, Andréia P; Santa-Rita, Ricardo M; Soares, Maurilio J; Barbosa, Helene S; de Castro, Solange L.
Micron; 40(2): 157-68, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18849169
Electron microscopy has proven to be a reliable and essential tool to determine morphological alterations and target organelles in the investigation of new drugs for Chagas disease. In this review, we focused on evaluating different agents that induce death of Trypanosoma cruzi, i.e. lysophospholipids analogues, naphthoquinones and derivatives, cytoskeletal inhibitors and natural products. Apoptosis-like presents as morphological characteristics DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic body formation. Autophagy involves autophagosome formation, with the appearance of membranes surrounding organelles and cytosolic structures. Necrosis causes the loss of osmotic balance, an increase of cytoplasmic vacuolization and plasma membrane disruption. Mitochondrion appears as a central checkpoint in both apoptosis and necrosis. Our evidences of ultrastructural changes to T. cruzi treated with the different classes of compounds point to dramatic mitochondrial alterations and similar autophagic phenotypes. Lysophospholipid analogues interfere in the lipid biosynthesis in epimastigotes, altering the amount of both phospholipids and sterols, and consequently the physical properties of the membrane. Naphthoquinone derivatives led to a strong DNA fragmentation in trypomastigotes and to the release of cysteine proteases from reservosomes to cytosol in epimastigotes, starting a proteolytic process which results in parasite death. The susceptibility of reservosomes was also observed in parasites treated with propolis, suggesting impairment of lipid metabolism, compromising membrane fluidity and leading to lysis. The cytoskeletal agents blocked mitosis of epimastigotes, arresting cell cycle and impairing the parasite proliferation. The variety of drug stimuli converge to the same pathway of death suggests an intense cross-talking between the three types of PCD in the protozoa.
Selo DaSilva