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Gelofusine Ameliorates Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

Sivanesan, Sivashangarie S; Azad, Mohammad A K; Schneider, Elena K; Ahmed, Maizbha U; Huang, Jiayuan; Wang, Jiping; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Velkov, Tony.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 61(12)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | Set 2017 | ID: mdl-28923868
Resumo: Colistin therapy is used as the last line of defense against life-threatening Gram-negative infections. Nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting side effect that impedes optimal dosing of patients. This study aims to examine the nephroprotective effect of the plasma volume expander gelofusine against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal protection was assessed in mice that were subcutaneously injected with colistin sulfate (14 mg/kg of body weight × 6 doses every 2 h; accumulated dose, 84 mg/kg) and simultaneously injected in the intraperitoneal region with gelofusine (75, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg × 6). At 2 and 20 h after the last colistin dose, mice were euthanized, and the severity of renal alteration was examined histologically. Histological findings in mice revealed that colistin-induced nephrotoxicity was ameliorated by gelofusine in a dose-dependent manner, whereas significant histological abnormalities were detected in the kidneys of mice in the colistin-only group. The impact of coadministered gelofusine on colistin pharmacokinetics was investigated in rats. Rats were administered a single intravenous dose of gelofusine at 400 mg/kg 15 min prior to the intravenous administration of colistin (1 mg/kg). Gelofusine codosing did not alter the pharmacokinetics of colistin in rats; however, gelofusine did significantly lower the accumulation of colistin in the kidney tissue of mice. This is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of gelofusine against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. These findings highlight the clinical potential of gelofusine as a safe adjunct for ameliorating the nephrotoxicity and increasing the therapeutic index of polymyxins.